||refers to the division of administrative areas
by the state. The Constitution of the People's Republic of
China stipulates that the administrative areas in China are
divided as: 1) The whole country is divided into provinces,
autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central
government; 2) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided
into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties
and cities; 3) Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties,
autonomous counties and cities; 4) Counties and autonomous
counties are divided into townships, nationality townships
and towns; 5) Municipalities and large cities are divided
into districts and counties, 6) The state shall, when necessary,
establish special administrative regions.
||refers to territorial land, sea and air space
under the administration of the People's Republic of China.
||refers to the natural environmental status formed
by the long-term exchange of energy and mass between the earth
and the air, and is the results of interaction of many factors.
Climate is both one of the environment factors and the important
resources for the living and production activities of the
human being. The average values across several years of meteorological
factors such as temperature, rainfall and humidity are used
as important parameters to describe the climate of a region,
while the average values (or total values) of a given year
or month of meteorological factors reflect the key characteristics
of climate for that period of time.
||refer to material resources that could be obtained
from the nature by human being and used for production and
living. Natural resources in general can be classified as
renewable resources and non-renewable resources. Renewable
resources refer to resources that could be renewed and recycled
during a relatively short period of time, including land resource,
water resource, climate resource, biology resource and marine
resource. Non-renewable resources include resources that could
not be renewed, such as minerals and geothermal resource.
||Land refers to the surface of the earth, consisting
of mainly rocks and its whethering and earth. Land resource
can be classified, by its utilization, as land for agriculture,
land for construction and unused land. Land for agriculture
includes cultivated land, plantation land, forestland, grassland
and waters. Land for construction includes land for residential
purpose, for manufacturing and mining, for transportation
and for water-conservancy projects. Unused land refers to
land other than land for agriculture and construction, including
beaches, deserts, Gobi, glaciers and rock mountains.
|Area of Cultivated Land
||refers to area of land reclaimed for the regular
cultivation of various farm crops, including crop-cover land,
fallow, newly reclaimed land and land laid idle for less than
|Area of Afforested Land
||refer to land for trees bamboo, bushes and mangrove,
including forest-cover land, bush-covered land, sparse forest
land, land planned for afforestation and nurseries of young
|Area of Grassland
||refers to areas of grassland, grass-slopes and
grass-covered hills with a vegetation-covering rate of over
5% that are used for animal husbandry or harvesting of grass.
It includes natural, cultivated and improved grassland areas.
||refers to forests, trees, forestland and wild
animals, plants and microorganism that live on forest and
trees. Trees include trees and bamboo. Forest refers to the
population of clusters of trees and other plants, animals
and microorganism as well as the earth and climate that have
interactions with the trees.
|Total Standing Stock Volume
||refers to the total stock volume of trees growing
in land£¬including trees in forest£¬ tress in sparse forest,
scattered trees and trees planted by the side of farm houses
and along the roads, rivers and fields.
||refers to the area of forest land where trees
and bamboo grow with canopy density above 0.2£¬including land
of natural woods and planted woods, but excluding bush land
and thin forest land. It reflects the total areas of afforestation.
|Stock Volume of Forest
||refers to total stock volume of wood growing
in forest area£¬which shows the total size and level of forest
resources of a country or a region£®It is also an important
indicator illustrating the richness of forest resource and
the status of forest ecological environment.
|Forest Coverage Rate
|| refers to the ratio of area of afforested land
to total land area. It is a very important indicator that
reflects the status of abundance of forest resource and ecosystem
balance. Forest area includes the area of trees and bamboo
grow with canopy density above 0.2, the area of shrubby tree
according to regulations of the government, the area of forest
land inside farm land and the area of trees planted by the
side of farm houses and along the roads, rivers and fields.
The formula for calculating forest coverage rate is as follows:|
Forestry coverage rate (%)= (Area of Afforested Land/Area
of Total Land)¡Á100%
||Water exists in the nature in solid, liquid
and gaseous states, is distributed in the ocean, land (including
earth) and air, and constitutes the water resource through
the circulation of water. Water resource includes the surface
water and underground water that is controlled by the human
being for irrigation, power-generation, water supply, navigation
and cultivation. It also includes rivers, lakes, wells, springs,
tides, gulf and water area for cultivation. Water resource
as an important natural resource is indispensable for the
development of the national economy.
|Surface Water and Underground Water
||Water on earth can be divided into surface water
and underground water according to its distribution. Surface
water refers to moisture exists in rivers, lakes, swamps,
glaciers, icecaps and so on. It is also called land water.
The underground water refers to water deposited underground
in the cranny and the hole of saturated rock soil and in the
|Inland Water Area
||refers to water area of rivers, lakes, ponds,
||is the general name for sea and ocean. Ocean
refers to the main body of large salt water connected with
the earth. Sea refers to the edge areas of the salt water
on the earth that are comparted or surrounded by land, island,
reef or peninsula.
|Marine Cultivatable Areas
||refer to water areas in beach, shallow
sea and lough that are used to breed marine cash propagation,
such as fish, shrimp, crab, shellfish, alga and so on.
||refers to the water gathered at the way out
of the cross section of drainage area either from the surface
or underground after deducting the wastage of the precipitation
on the land. Runoff can be divided into surface runoff, underground
runoff and within soil runoff. Surface runoff refers to water
flow to the rivers, lakes, swamps, and seas on the surface
of the earth. Underground runoff refers to water flow to rivers,
lakes, swamps, and seas through the water-bearing stratum
of confined layer or unconfined layer.
|Volume of Runoff
||refers to the total volume of water running
through a certain cross section of a river during a certain
period of time, reflecting the water resource condition in
a country or a region. The formula for calculating volume
or runoff is as follows:|
||refer to useful minerals that can be used for
industrial or agricultural purposes enriched in lithosphere
or on earth due to the geological process. Minerals are important
natural resources, and important material base for social
|Ensured Mineral Reserves
||refer to the actual mineral reserves, which
equal to the proven mineral reserves (including industrial
reserves and prospective reserves) minus extracted parts and
||Each river has its own main stream and branches
to form the water system of the river. Each river has its
own catchment area, which is also called as the drainage area
of the river.
||refer to rivers directly or indirectly flowing
into the sea. The area providing water to the out-flowing
rivers is called as out-flowing area.
||refer to rivers in inland dry areas that die
away in desert on the way or infuse into inland lakes. The
area providing water to the inland rivers is called as inland
||refers to seabed and subsoil of sea floor area
that beyond the marginal sea of the coastal countries which
stretches naturally of its land territory to continent edge,
and its width is defined by the nited Nations Marine Convention.
The continental shelf area is rich in aquatic products, and
its seabed contains petroleum, natural gas and other mineral
resources, which belong to the coastal countries. The continental
shelf of our country is the natural stretch of its land territory
to the continent edge besides the marginal sea of our country.
It expands to the seabed and subsoil of the sea floor area
to the edge of the continent. If the distance from the baseline
of the marginal sea to the continent edge is less than 200
sea miles, it can be expanded to 200 sea miles.
|Shallow Sea Cultivation
||refers to the breeding of marine cash propagation
in the cultivatable shallow sea.
||refers to the level off the ooze and mud in
tideland to bank up and build dam to conduct marine cultivation.
||refers to marine cultivation conducted in harbors,
bends, or the sea-beaches or marshes around seaside and bayou
by blocking the gate and banking up the dam.
refers to the air temperature. China uses centigrade as
the unit. The thermometry used for weather observation is
put in a breezy shutter, which is 1.5 meters high from the
ground. Therefore, the commonly used temperature refers
to the temperature in the breezy shutter 1.5 meters away
from the ground. The calculation method is as follows:
Monthly average temperature is the summation of average
daily temperature of one month divided by the actual days
of that particular month.
Annual average temperature is the summation of monthly average
of a year divided by 12 months.
||refers to the ratio of actual water vapor pressure
to the saturation water vapor density under the current temperature.
The statistical method is the same as that of temperature.
|Volume of Precipitation
||refers to the deepness of liquid state or solid
state (thawed) water falling from the sky to the ground that
has not been evaporated, infiltrated or run off. The calculation
method is as follows:|
Monthly precipitation is the summation of daily precipitation
of a month.
Annual precipitation is the summation of 12 months precipitation
of a year.
||refer to the actual hours of sun irradiating
the earth. The calculation method is the same as that of the